What is a Mole?
Many people refer to a mole as any dark spot or irregularity in the skin. Doctors use different terms. But the following types of skin marks such as these are not treated the same way moles are and are not discussed here
- Abnormal formations of blood vessels (hemangiomas)
- Keratoses (benign or precancerous spots, which appear after about age 30 years
What causes Moles?
- Some people are born with moles. Other moles appear later in life.
- Sun exposure seems to play a role in the development of moles and may even play a role in the development of atypical, or dysplastic, moles.
- The role of heredity cannot be overemphasized. Many families have a type of mole known as dysplastic (atypical), which can be associated with a higher frequency of melanoma.
Skin Tags & Removal
A skin tag is a tiny, benign, outpouching of skin that is typically connected to the underlying skin by a thin stalk. Skin tags look like tiny bits of “hanging” skin and typically occur in sites where clothing rubs against the skin or where there is skin-to-skin friction, such as the underarms, neck, upper chest, and groin.
Skin tags are not present at birth and their frequency increases with age. Skin tags can be observed in about 25% of adults. Studies have shown a genetic predisposition to the development of skin tags. Therefore, skin tags can run in families.
A skin tag is medically termed an acrochordon. Sometimes, other terms have been used to refer to skin tags. These include soft warts (although they do not represent true warts), soft fibromas, fibroepithelial polyps (FEP), fibroma pendulans, and pedunculated fibroma.
What are warts, Are they contagious & what causes warts ?
Warts are local growths in the skin caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. There are over 100 types of HPV. Some HPV types infect the genital and oral mucosa and produce large masses, some of which may become cancerous. Other HPV types are responsible for benign common skin warts that are not associated with cancer.
Although warts are considered to be contagious, it is not uncommon for just one family member to have them. In addition, they often affect just one part of the body (such as the hands or the feet), but they can be spread to other areas by picking them. The form taken by the wart infection seems to be dependent on the genetic type of the wart virus and its anatomical location. For example, the same type of wart virus can cause common hand warts as well as plantar warts.
The best treatment for you will depend on the extent of the scarring, the desired results, and your skin type. For this reason, you should book a consultation with our trained and experienced skin experts to help you decide. In some cases, combining multiple treatments may have the best effect.
People may experience:
- Hair Loss
- Small dents in nails
DPN - Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra
Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra (also known as DPN) is characterized by small brown or black spots that are on the skin around the cheekbones and eyes. The dark spots may also be found on other areas of the face, neck, chest, and back. Some people with dermatosis papulosa nigra have a few, isolated spots while others have hundreds of spots. The spots may be flat or hang off the skin like a skin tag.
What Causes DPN ?
- The cause of DPN is unknown but around 50% of those affected have a family history of DPN. It is not contagious and does not spread from person-to-person.
How is DPN diagnosed?
- DPN is diagnosed by a doctor looking at the skin and seeing the typical appearance of the raised spots.
- Rarely, a skin biopsy may be needed to confirm the diagnosis.
Keloids are raised, reddish nodules that develop at the site of an injury. After a wound has occurred to the skin both skin cells and connective tissue cells (fibroblasts) begin multiplying to repair the damage. A scar is made up of ‘connective tissue’, gristle-like fibers deposited in the skin by the fibroblasts to hold the wound closed. With keloids, the fibroblasts continue to multiply even after the wound is filled in. Thus keloids project above the surface of the skin and form large mounds of scar tissue.
Keloids may form on any part of the body, although the upper chest, shoulders and upper back are especially prone to keloid formation. Symptoms include pigmentation of the skin, itchiness, redness, unusual sensations and pain.
It is estimated that keloids occur in about 10% of people. While most people never form keloids, others develop them after minor injuries, even insect bites or pimples. Darkly pigmented people seem to be more prone to forming keloids. Men and women are equally affected.
Vitiligo Cure & Surgery
What is Vitiligo?
Vitiligo is a chronic skin disorder that causes areas of skin to lose colour. It presents as depigmented (white) patches. Exposed body sites, such as the face, elbows, knees, hands and feet, are often involved, resulting in significant cosmetic concerns. Vitiligo is usually treated with creams and tablets, or by phototherapy. Vitiligo may fail to improve or clear with these treatments. Surgical treatment options can be considered in patients with stable vitiligo.
What are the different types of vitiligo surgery ?
All types of surgical treatment aim to transfer melanocytes
(pigment-producing cells) from normal skin (the donor site) to
the skin affected by vitiligo.
Surgical treatment for vitiligo can be considered in two main categories:
- Grafting of melanocyte-rich tissue (tissue grafting)
- Grafting of melanocyte cells (cellular grafting).
What is Vitiligo & how is it treated ?
Vitiligo is also known as ‘leucoderma’. In India , it is called ‘safed kod’ or ‘safed dag’ and is considered as a social stigma. Vitiligo is appearance of single or multiple depigmented patches on any part of the body.These patches gradually increase in size & cause lot of psychological stress in the patient. It is an auto-immune condition and may have a genetic predisposition. Treatment of vitiligo usually takes a long time. Medical treatment helps arrest the spread of depigmentation and in some cases, may bring back the pigmentation. In majority of the cases, medical therapy only achieves stabilization of the vitiligo patch but fails to cause repigmentation. However, repigmentation in cases of ‘stable vitiligo’ can be achieved by various dermatosurgical techniques.
What is the role of PUVA in Vitiligo ?
PUVA therapy enhances skin re-pigmentation. An oral psoralen compound is given to the patient. Two hours later , the de-pigmented patch on his body is exposed to ultraviolet-A (UVA) rays, for a fixed time duration. This should be supervised by a medical personnel. If UVA is not available then the patch is exposed to sun rays. The latter is known as PUVA SOL therapy.Treatment with UVB rays is another option. The most recent modality is treatment with Excimer laser.
When is the patient fit for surgery ?
When the de-pigmented patch does not increase in size for a period of two years, it is said to be stable. This is the right time to perform vitiligo surgery. If the patch is growing or is in an active phase, it needs treatment with medicines and / or PUVA till it stops growing.
What are the surgical procedures available for vitiligo ?
- All types of surgical treatment aim to transfer melanocytes (pigment-producing cells) from normal skin (the donor site) to the skin affected by vitiligo.
Surgical treatment for vitiligo can be considered in two main
- Miniature punch grafting.
- Ultra thin skin grafting.
- Suction blister grafting.
- Therapeutic spot or regional dermabrasion .
- Melanocyte culture and transplantation.